Project Terminology and Methodology
ABCD approach: In short, asset-based community development - as opposed to needs-based community development - is based on the idea that community development practices and interventions should be based on the social, material, relational and other assets people have already. ABCD concentrates on encouraging farmers to first ‘map’ their assets and then think about how they can optimize their utilization of those assets in order to push their own development forward. The approach draws on the idea that development cannot and should neither be introduced nor brought from outside but is only sustainable if the people themselves see what they have and decide themselves how they might best use those assets.
Training of Trainers (ToT): The Triple A project has worked under a Training of Trainers (ToT) model for expansion of technical skills and knowledge. Under this model, farmers selected by their peers are trained by ICRAF Field Staff and government extension staff, and then subsequently train other farmers on the skills they have learned.
Farmer to Farmer Extension (F2F): The final phase of the Triple A project is Farmer to Farmer Extension (F2F), which is scaling and knowledge sharing. This is propelled by farmers themselves, with minimal involvement by ICRAF. More information about dynamics of scaling for this project can be found under "Our Communities", or by contacting Lisa Fuchs.
Lead Farmers (LFs): Farmers selected by their peers during group capacity and development training to undertake technical skills training, delivered by ICRAF field staff and government extension staff. LF’s are not remunerated for their positions, and are therefore self-driven in their ToT activities after training.
Training, Tools & Strategies
IIPS: Identities, interests and preferences. One of the primary aims of The triple A project is to enhance uptake of climate change adaptation and mitigation practices and technologies in line with and responsive to local identities, interests and preferences (IIP).
Group Dynamics, Leadership and Record-Keeping (GDL) Training: The second part of training undertaken by all group members during the initial five-day training, to develop agency and group capacity. This training is meant to strengthen community groups, empower group members and promote strategies for responsible and accountable collaboration within groups.
Asset Mapping:The process undertaken by communities or individuals to visualize their assets, whether human, social, financial, physical, or natural.
- The “Leaky bucket”: It is an exercise that visualizes household income and expenditures in terms of a leaking bucket. This exercise was also carried out on group level.
- Natural/Physical Asset Map:While the “leaky bucket” is a form of mapping financial assets- group members also map natural and physical assets through a mapping exercise wherein the group walks through their community, documenting physical and natural assets.
- “Head and Hands”: A mapping of human assets done on an individual level during leadership training
“Low hanging fruits”: The idea of “low hanging fruits” is that farmers should invest in things that are easily accessible for them and that promise fast and secure returns. If a given farmer for example has 5 dairy cows but no chicken, it will be a “lower hanging fruit” for him to invest in a milk enterprise than to start selling eggs.
Group Savings and Loaning (GSL) Training: The final part of training undertaken by all group members during the initial five-day training, to develop agency and group capacity. During this training, group members strengthen internal resource mobilization and utilization and well as financial literacy and inclusion, through the setup of Village Savings and Loaning Associations (VSLA)
- Village Savings and Loaning Associations (VSLA): Semi-formal loaning institutions, which do not require backing from a formal financial institution such as a bank. Sometimes referred to as Community Savings and Loans Associations (COSALOs), from the CARE model.
- Value Chain Analysis (VCA): Value-chain analysis, or now community-led value chain analysis, is a precise examination of all the steps of production of a certain product or produce. It entails an analysis of all things relevant to a given products, here mainly agricultural product, from the land it is cultivated on, to the origin of farm inputs, the machinery, to marketing opportunities, the general legal situation and other market forces. A better understanding of the forces at play are to help the farmers decide in which agricultural enterprise they should best invest.
- Commodity Ledger- A tool for organizing inventory and formal tracking of commodities over time.
Community Action Plans (CAPS):Throughout the group capacity development training, groups develop a community action plan (CAP). This plan has group-defined priority activities, available assets and resources, and existing gaps. Based on these CAPS, group select context-specific and IIP-based activities (“low hanging fruits”) in which they see opportunities to excel with targeted support, knowledge and skills from ICRAF and partners.